The Composting Toilet Petition for Dutchess County sign now

Composting of humanure has been in existence in countries around the world for thousands of years-- the first commercially designed toilet composting systems originated in Scandinavia in the 60's; from there the idea moved to North America, where more models were designed and marketed.

Composting toilets have been proven to be successful here in Dutchess County at the Beacon Sloop Club and at the Queens Botanical Gardens. Bronx Zoo's composting eco-toilet system was even selected as Environmental Project of the Year for 2007 by both Greenbuildings NYC and The New York Construction News.

IslandWood, a school on Washington's Bainbridge Island, has long had working composting toilets, and in Vancouver, British Columbia, the C.K. Choi Building, a 30,000 square-foot office complex, utilizes composting toilets and urinals for human waste disposal-- there are five composters there with ten flushless toilets.

Composting toilets are found in a number of national parks, including the Grand Canyon, and the Misquamicut State Beach in Rhode Island. Ten years ago the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection started setting up composting toilets around the state; according to the state's Parks Director, composting toilets are better for cleanliness and odor and don't contaminate groundwater system.

In fact, groundwater protection (from bacteria contamination and other pollution) is becoming more and more of an issue all the time across our county, as maintenance of septic systems and sewage treatment plants, and wastewater treatment in general, has increasingly become problematic. More and more local folks are requesting that our county government do more regarding innovative wastewater treatment technologies-- whether it's approval of composting toilets-- or allowing innovative alternatives to package treatment plants like John Todd's Eco Machine at the Omega Center here in Clinton, or constructed reed bed wetlands across the river in Lloyd, or decentralized wastewater treatment, as advocated by Orange County wastewater expert/consultant Simon Gruber.

It's also pertinent to note here that Riverkeeper also issued a report May 15th noting that 10 of the 13 species of "signature fish" in the Hudson River are on the decline and that the river is showing an increasingly unstable ecosystem-- in large part due to sewage overflows up and down the Hudson.

If you think it's time for Dutchess to step up to the plate on this issue with the proven innovative solution of composting toilets to be installed by our county's Department of Public Works at least in our county parks here in Dutchess (Bowdoin Park, Wilcox Park, and Quiet Cove Park), as well as considered during other renovation projects planned for various county buildings-- and if you think our county's and state's Health Department need to make it easier for composting toilets (and other innovative alternatives for developers) to be installed elsewhere in the county-- sign on to this petition with your comments/recommendations re: wastewater treatment in Dutchess County, send a letter to [email protected], and pass this along to all you know.

We deserve clean drinking water-- and open minds in our county government to ensure it-- nothing less.

[see more on this at Clivus.com, SolarToilet.com, Sun-Mar.com, CompostingToilet.org, and Biolet.com]

Joel Tyner
Dutchess County Legislature Environmental Committee Chair
County Legislator, Clinton/Rhinebeck
324 Browns Pond Road
Staatsburg, NY 12580
[email protected]
(845) 876-2488

[also see Dave Praeger's incomparable "Poop Culture: How America Is Shaped By Its Grossest National Product"-- at PooptheBook.com/blog/?p=9]

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[resolution here below submitted May 16th]

WHEREAS, more and more Dutchess County residents are requesting that our county government do more regarding innovative wastewater treatment technologies; Riverkeeper also issued a report this May noting that 10 of the 13 species of "signature fish" in the Hudson River are on the decline and that the river is showing an increasingly unstable ecosystem, in part due to sewage overflows up and down the Hudson, and

WHEREAS, composting toilets have entered the mainstream plumbing realm by being tested and, if approved, certified to the ANSI/NSF-41 Standard; they can be tested and certified for ANSI/NSF-41 by any ANSI accredited testing laboratories such as Canadian Standards Association, CSA International, National Sanitation Foundation or Underwriters Laboratories; waterless, odorless composting toilets ensure that houses can remain occupied in drought areas where water is shut off for periods of time, and

WHEREAS, ten years ago the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection started setting up composting toilets around the state; according to the state's Parks Director, composting toilets are better for cleanliness and odor, and don't contaminate ground water systems; they are also found in national parks, including the Grand Canyon, and in other state parks, including Misquamicut State Beach in Rhode Island, and

WHEREAS, the Beacon Sloop Club here in Dutchess County has long had a composting toilet, and
last September New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg officially opened the Queens Botanical Gardens' Visitor & Administration Center, the most advanced green building in New York City; the building has two compost toilets for the Garden's staff that use three ounces of water with each flush, rather than the typical three and a half gallons used by conventional toilets; contents of the toilets go to a tank where microbes consume the waste, saving wear-and-tear on the City's overburdened sewage system; with compost toilets, waterless urinals, and sink faucets that shut off automatically, the V&A Center consumes 82\% less water than a conventional building of the same size, and

WHEREAS, the Bronx Zoo's composting eco-toilet system was selected as Environmental Project of the Year for 2007 by both Greenbuildings NYC and The New York Construction News in recognition of its environmentally friendly facilities, and thanks to the contributions of so many visitors, the garden grows, microorganisms get their daily fill, and many, many gallons of water are saved each year on the grounds of the Bronx Zoo, and

WHEREAS, less than 3 percent of our planet's water is fresh water, of which humans can access only a small portion; the Bronx Zoo's eco-toilets neatly conserve this precious resource through an innovative flush mechanism; instead of the nearly two gallons of water spent with each flush of a conventional toilet, these facilities accomplish the task with only three ounces of water and a cascade of biocompatible foam, using literally 95 percent less water per flush, eliminating sewage flowing to New York's waste treatment plants, and

WHEREAS, also conserved at the Bronx Zoo's Eco-Restroom is the waste itself; instead of entering the sewer system, visitors' liquid assets are flushed into a composting tank below the building; red worms, fungi, and other organisms at the bottom of the food chain eat through the compost tank habitat, transforming its contents into fertilizer; meanwhile, excess water from the sinks irrigates the gray water garden just outside, where the plants will naturally filter it, and

WHEREAS, in addition to recycling resources, the Eco-Restroom serves as an educational exhibit; cartoon animals from the children's book "The Truth About Poop" adorn the stalls and walls of the lavatory; the graphics praise the power of poop and offer conservation tips for visitors to use at home, such as a recipe for a homemade drain cleaner that won't harm wildlife; the restroom, which opened on Earth Day 2007, is located at the Bronx River Parkway entrance; sixty percent of the Bronx Zoo's two million visitors enter and exit through this gate each year, adding up to one very big relief, and

WHEREAS, IslandWood, a school on Washington's Bainbridge Island, is designed to give grade-school children a chance to see and feel many sustainable technologies; Islandwood's composting toilets have been a source of many discussions; below the bathrooms are several composters, in which urine and feces are both separated and composted; over the course of more than a year, solid waste volume is reduced by more than 90 percent, and the solid and liquid end products are both stable and safe to use as fertilizer, where local regulations permit, and

WHEREAS, in Vancouver, British Columbia, the C.K. Choi Building, a 30,000 square-foot office complex, utilizes composting toilets and urinals for human waste disposal; this new building, which houses The Institute of Asian Research, is not connected to the city's sewer system; a subsurface, greywater recycling system with phragmite (tall grasses) plant varieties, cleanses the greywater which is then used for on-site irrigation, and

WHEREAS, there are five Clivus Multrum Model M28 Composters at the Choi Building with ten flushless toilets and, in addition, several flushless, trapless ventilated urinals attached to them; each of these Clivus Composters has an annually user capacity rated at 45,000 visits; therefore, the total annual rated capacity for the Clivus systems there is 225,000 visits; all of the Choi building's washwater (greywater) is processed on-site separately, and

WHEREAS, composting of humanure has been in existence in countries around the world for thousands of years; the first commercially designed toilet composting systems originated in Scandinavia in the 60's; from there the idea moved to North America, where more models were designed and marketed, and

WHEREAS, a composting toilet is any system that converts human waste into an organic compost and usable soil, through the natural breakdown of organic matter into its essential minerals; aerobic microbes do this in the presence of moisture and air, by oxidizing the carbon in the organic material to carbon dioxide gas, and converting hydrogen atoms to water vapor, and

WHEREAS, a correctly installed and operating composting toilet will not smell at all because there is a positive suction of air through the toilet at all times; in fact, there should be less smell than a conventional toilet; a full-size composting toilet does not need to have solids removed for several decades if the active tank volume is at least three times the yearly addition; this is because the waste dramatically decreases in volume; after around 5 years only 1-2\% of the original volume remains, and

WHEREAS, in recent years, several commercial compost-toilet systems have begun to compete with and replace conventional water toilets in high-use public facilities; there they have found a market because of their resilience and the environmental advantages of not discharging pollutants into the environment, and

WHEREAS, composting toilets are also becoming more common as an accepted alternative in homes, where the odor-free operation of a properly functioning unit appeals more to some houseowners than conventional toilets, with their consumption of large quantities of clean water and discharge of large amounts of sewage, and therefore be it

RESOLVED, that the Dutchess County Legislature requests that our county's Department of Public Works evaluate the feasibility of putting in composting toilets at Bowdoin Park, Wilcox Park, and Quiet Cove Park, along with other renovation projects scheduled at various county buildings this year and next year, and report back to our County Legislature on this in July, and be it further

RESOLVED, that the Dutchess County Legislature requests that our county's Health Department and Water and Wastewater Authority evaluate the feasibility of approving composting toilets for use here in Dutchess County, including at Dutchess Community College, Vassar College, Marist College, or Bard College, if requested, and be it further

RESOLVED, that a copy of this resolution be sent to our County Executive, our county's Department of Public Works, our county's Health Department, our county's Water and Wastewater Authority, and the New York State Health Department.

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From http://www.wcs.org/353624/wcs_ecorestrooms ...

The Other W.C. in WCS

Thanks to the contributions of so many visitors, the garden grows, microorganisms get their daily fill, and many, many gallons of water are saved each year on the grounds of the Bronx Zoo. In recognition of its environmentally friendly facilities, the Zoos eco-toilet was selectedas Environmental Project of the Year by both Greenbuildings NYC and The New York Construction News.

Less than 3 percent of our planets water is fresh water, of which humans can access only a small portion. The Zoos eco-toilets neatly conserve this precious resource through an innovative flush mechanism. Instead of the nearly two gallons of water spent with each flush of a conventional toilet, these facilities accomplish the task with only three ounces of water and a cascade of biocompatible foam.

Also conserved is the waste itself. Instead of entering the sewer system, visitors liquid assets are flushed into a composting tank below the building. Red worms, fungi, and other organisms at the bottom of the food chain eat through the compost tank habitat, transforming its contents into fertilizer. Meanwhile, excess water from the sinks irrigates the gray water garden just outside, where the plants will naturally filter it.

Other green features recognized by the awards include extensive skylighting that reduces electricity use and the structure itself. Designed by the architecture firm Edelman Sultan Knox Wood, the 2,200-square-foot building was constructed with eco-friendly materials and sited to minimize impacts on existing trees and landscapes.

In addition to recycling resources, the Eco-Restroom serves as an educational exhibit. Cartoon animals from the childrens book The Truth about Poop adorn the stalls and walls of the lavatory. The graphics praise the power of poop and offer conservation tips for visitors to use at home, such as a recipe for a homemade drain cleaner that wont harm wildlife.
The restroom, which opened on Earth Day 2007, is located at the Bronx River Parkway entrance. Sixty percent of the Bronx Zoos two million visitors enter and exit through this gate each yearadding up to one very big relief.

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From http://www.queensbotanical.org/103498/sustainable ...

Sustainable Landscapes & Buildings Project

Making decisions that protect and nourish our environment and our community sustainable choices is Queens Botanical Gardens most important mission.

The Garden teaches and practices sustainability in design, construction, and operations support; environmental stewardship; long-term financial viability; and the health of visitors, staff, and the community.

The Gardens Master Plan of 2001 launched the Sustainable Landscapes and Buildings Project. As the name implies, the project is much more than buildings. It includes new plants, many of which are native species; bioswales to collect storm water and reduce wear-and-tear on New York Citys combined sewer system; water recycling systems; the new Horticulture/Maintenance Building; the revolutionary Visitor & Administration Center; and the transformation of our existing parking lot into a 125-space parking garden beginning on or around June 2008.

On September 27, 2007, Mayor Michael Bloomberg, Borough President Helen Marshall, whose office has been the lead supporter of the Sustainable Buildings and Landscape Project, and numerous other dignitaries officially opened our Visitor & Administration Center, the most advanced green building in New York City. It was landmark event for the Garden as Mayor Bloomberg cited the V&A Center as a major asset in the citys PlaNYC 2030, the ambitious program to cut New York Citys carbon emissions by 30\%.

The building has two compost toilets for the Gardens staff that use three ounces of water with each flush, rather than the typical three and a half gallons used by conventional toilets. Contents of the toilets go to a tank where microbes consume the waste, saving wear-and-tear on the Citys overburdened sewage system. With compost toilets, waterless urinals, and sink faucets that shut off automatically, the V&A Center consumes 82\% less water than a conventional building of the same size.

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From http://www.treehugger.com/files/2005/06/islandwood_comp.php ...

IslandWood'sComposting Toilets are a Success

IslandWood is a school on Washingtons Bainbridge Island. It is designed to give grade-school children a chance to see and feel many of the sustainable technologies. Islandwood's composting toilets have been a source of many discussions. Below the bathrooms are several composters, in which urine and feces are both separated and composted. Over the course of more than a year, solid waste volume is reduced by more than 90 percent, and the solid and liquid end products are both stable and safe to use as fertilizer, where local regulations permit.

System maintenance involves creating and maintaining conditions inside the composter that favor the proliferation of a wide range of soil organisms. Although IslandWood staff manage their systems, it is not uncommon for owners to engage the manufacturer to carry out this responsibility. At IslandWood, the finished compost is not yet ready to be removed from the systems, even though the systems have been in use since 2002. However, when the time comes, the staff plans to use the compost, which will closely resemble topsoil, along the trail edge to fertilize ornamental plants

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From http://www.cityfarmer.org/comptoilet64.html ...

The C.K. Choi Building at The University of British Columbia

In Vancouver, British Columbia, a 30,000 sq. ft. office complex, utilizes composting toilets and urinals for human waste disposal. The new building, which houses The Institute of Asian Research, is not connected to the city's sewer system. As well, a subsurface, greywater recycling system with phragmite (tall grasses) plant varieties, cleanses the greywater which is then used for on-site irrigation.

The C K Choi Building at UBC is the first all-Clivus Multrum large-scale office-building project in Canada. There are a total of 5 Clivus Multrum Model M28 Composters at the Choi Building...with ten flushless toilets and, in addition, several flushless, trapless ventilated urinals attached to them. Each of these Clivus Composters has an annually user capacity rated at 45,000 visits. Therefore, the total annual rated capacity for the Clivus systems there is 225,000 visits. All of the Choi building's washwater (greywater) is processed on-site separately.

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From
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C02E1D71F3DF936A15750C0A9679C8B63&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss ...

A Natural Solution For Those Times When Nature Calls
by Carolyn Battista [New York Times 3/25/01]

The parks division of the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection is setting out to improve visitor services while protecting natural resources. As part of that effort, composting toilets are being set up around the state.

''Composting toilets are better for cleanliness and odor, and they don't contaminate ground water systems,'' Pamela Adams, director of the parks division, said. ''It's the first thing people want in a park, never mind the beach.''

What's being replaced are the pit toilets, or as Ms. Adams called them, the ''old outhouse-type facilities.''

Most composting toilets, including those in Connecticut parks, use no water. All of them provide an enclosed environment in which waste is composted to produce a usable soil additive.

''It's similar to composting food and leaves in your back yard,'' said Bill Wall, president of Clivus New England Inc. in North Adams, Mass., which makes composting toilets.

Mr. Wall's company distributes the Clivus Multrum, a composting toilet developed in the 1930's in Sweden -- where, it is said, the original unit that was installed in 1939 is still working nicely. The models are manufactured in several countries.
Composting toilets have gained increasing acceptance in the United States through the years. They are found in homes and public buildings, at highway rest stops and in schools, too. They are also found in national parks, including the Grand Canyon, and in other state parks, including Misquamicut State Beach in Rhode Island.
In 1998, Connecticut first placed a few of the composting toilets at the Green Falls Pond in Pachaug State Forest, Voluntown.

''It was sort of an experiment,'' said Scott Dawley, a supervisor there, ''but the plan was to move to this type in the future.''

Since then, composting toilets have been placed elsewhere in Pachaug and at Hopeville Pond State Park in Griswold; Bluff Point State Park, Groton, and, through a separate public works project, at the entrance to Sherwood Island State Park in Westport.

The plan is to install about 80 more composting toilets in parks from Redding to Pomfret by summer 2002.

The state buys the composting toilets, which are accessible to the handicapped, from Clivus Multrum for about $6,600 each. Workers from the D.E.P. construct the individual unit buildings for about $3,000 each and do other site work.

The pit toilets are not the only ones being replaced. Hopeville Pond replaced its flush toilets and an ailing septic system with composting toilets at a cost lower much than putting in a treatment facility.

The renovation of Gillette Castle State Park in East Haddam will include a complex with composting toilets, and other installations may replace new or existing septic systems.

Each composting unit needs power to propel a fan that creates a draft to pull air down through the composting material and up a vent, a process that removes odors from the building and provides air to support decomposition.

Electricity runs the fans in some places, but solar panels will be used in many spots where trees do not block the sunlight. Bluff Point is the first site to use the solar panels, which charge the batteries for the fans in its three composting units, according to John Lincoln, the park's manager. At Chatfield Hollow State Park in Killingworth, where there is a waterwheel, the plan is to use hydropower.

Mr. Lincoln said the new units were roomier than the old outhouses, which he said were ''the size of a phone booth.'' The units are also more secure; they can't be easily tipped over by pranksters, as the old ones sometimes were.

Many visitors who stroll or hike through the parks and happen upon these simple wooden buildings talk about how pleased they are to find such clean, nonpolluting facilities. Others are simply curious, especially about the solar units.

''People want to know what the panels are for,'' said Sharon Bein, an employee at Bluff Point.

One hiker emerged from the woods, peered closely at a solar unit, and announced to passersby that this was just what was needed in Nepal, where he had recently visited.


Maintaining the composting units requires basic cleaning and tending the composting tank, where, instead of water, pine shavings and a grainy bacteria mix are deposited regularly.

Mrs. Bein starts this chore by dumping a bag of pine shavings into the bowl. The shavings act as a bulking agent, absorbing liquids and helping the air to penetrate the composting pile. Next she adds the grainy mix of bacteria to some water and pours it in.

''It aids the decomposition,'' Mrs. Bein said.

Then with the help of a co-worker, Rick Niedojadlo, she removes the hatch over the tank, pumps out excess liquid from the maintenance operations, sprays on more bacteria mix and spreads the shavings with a rake-like device.

''It's environmentally friendly,'' Mr. Niedojadlo said. ''It all breaks down.''

The parks division will determine what to do with the compost that is produced.
''Massachusetts uses it in flower boxes along the roads and at rest stops,'' said Mr. Dawley, the Pachaug supervisor, adding that Connecticut might do the same or perhaps use the material at the state's tree nursery. But the composting process is not speedy; it takes a few years to get to that stage.

Moving along much faster is the construction. Once the grounds thaw, new installations of the composting toilets will get under way.

The parks chosen include Putnam Memorial in Redding; Macedonia Brook, Kent; Southford Falls, Oxford; Talcott Mountain, Simsbury; Devil's Hopyard, East Haddam and Mashamoquet, Pomfret.

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From http://compostingtoilet.org/faq/index.php ...

WHAT ARE COMPOSTING TOILETS?

Toilets which use little or no water and treat toilet wastes on-site for reuse as valuable compost.

HOW DO THEY WORK?

They work by providing a enclosed environment for the natural process of aerobic decomposition. The same type of environment on forest floors which decomposes wildlife droppings and converts them into valuable nutrients for the vegetation to use.

There are many different designs of composting toilets, but all carry out this basic process of aerobic decomposition. Design variations enhance this process and they include:

air baffles for distribution of air into the pile
heating units to keep the compost at the best temperature
injected air for increased decomposition
mixing tongs to ensure full decomposition throughout the pile
the addition of composting worms and macro-organisms

WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES TO THE USER AND OWNER?

Greatly reduced water storage or supply costs, possibility of a rebate for community sewage charges, production of compost, in many systems the ability to compost vegetable peelings and garden trimmings with toilet wastes.

WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES TO THE COMMUNITY?

If a community were to embrace the total use of composting toilets and appropriate greywater systems, it would have no sewage charges, sewage pipe installations and maintenance costs.

The community would also have greatly reduced water costs.

It could also reduce its rubbish collection charges through recycling most vegetable matter, and would be able to produce valuable compost and worm castings for sale or reuse in community and private gardens.

WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES TO THE ENVIRONMENT?

The widescale use of composting toilets would be very beneficial to the environment. Reduced water use would minimise storage and piping impacts, elimination of sewage would reduce nutrient flows into river and oceans and subsequent rejuvenation of marine systems.

Cities could become fertilizer factories instead of nutrient sinks, reducing environmental problems associated with manufacture of fertilizers.

HOW LONG HAVE THEY BEEN USED?

Composting of humanure has been in existence in countries around the world for thousands of years.

The first commercially designed toilet composting systems originated in Scandinavia in the 60s. From there the idea moved to North America, where more models were designed and marketed.

In particular, Canada has become one of the leaders in manufactured composting toilet systems. The huge cottage market in Ontario has helped this trend to continue. Australia was the next to truly examine the possibilities in the 70s and they now have many systems being installed.

Composting toilets have passed the design phase and are now available in many countries in the world, and will increasingly expand their range as the benefits become increasingly understood.

HOW MUCH DO THEY COST?

Initial costs vary widely, but when compared to the price of a septic system installation, a composting toilet system is anywhere from 25-75\% less expensive, depending on your location. For example, some new septic installations in Ontario, Canada can run in excess of C$20,000.

But, the true cost savings come in the long term, with the reduced water use costs, non-existent sewage costs, and the ability to produce valuable nutrient humus.

HOW DO YOU GET RID OF THE WASTE?

With composting toilets there is no waste, merely useable end-products.

The liquid end product has undergone conversion in the composting pile and is a valuable liquid fertilizer and/or is evaporated. Check local regulations regarding use of liquid as a fertilizer.

The solid end-product is a valuable humus with high nutrient levels in a form that is slowly released to plants on demand.

DON'T THEY SMELL?

A correctly installed and operating composting toilet will not smell at all because there is a positive suction of air through the toilet at all times. In fact, there should be less smell than a conventional toilet.

Units can produce smells if they are overloaded or not installed or operated correctly. Simple changes to the systems operation and usage will easily remedy the odor problems.

DO THEY CLOG UP?

Again, they will only clog up if the systems are overloaded. In most cases, they will easily tolerate the shock loadings of larger gatherings than normal.

It is important to follow any guidelines suggested by the manufacturer. Most systems have rated capacities that tell you how many people can use a system.

WHAT CAN YOU PUT IN THEM?

They will compost anything organic. Basically this is anything that you could eat. But this also extends to food scraps, egg shells, paper and cardboard, lawn clippings and other small garden trimmings, clothes from natural fibres and disposable cotton diapers and tampons (without the plastic tags).

ARE THEY APPROVED BY THE HEALTH AUTHORITIES?

Health authorities vary widely in their acceptance of composting toilets, usually based on their experience with them and the information that they have available to them. In most cases, once they understand the ability of composting to remove disease-causing bacterial and viruses when correct procedure is carried out, they should approve most systems where a sewage is not available. At the present, most authorities forbid their use where a sewage is available, although there are now many who are challenging this and wish to be responsible for the treatment of their own waste.



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